Department of Sampradaya Shastra

Sakya School
Department of Sakya Sampradaya was established in 1967 to preserve and disseminate the valuable traditions of Path and Fruition that has descended from Nalanda tradition.

History
The founder of this school was the great master Khon Konchog Gyalpo (1034 A.D.). He received the teachings of Path and Fruition from the great translator Drokmi Shakya Yeshe (992-1074), which was transmitted from Acharya Dharmapala, then the abbot of Nalanda University. From the doctrinal point of view the tradition traces its origins to the Indian Yogi Virupa and then through Gayadhara. Drokmi travelled to India where he received the teachings on the Kalachakra, the Path and Fruition, and so forth from many Indian masters. He returned to Tibet and started the teaching this tradition. Khon Konchok Gyalpo established a monastery on the top of white place in the Tsang province of Central Tibet. Therefore it was called Sakya, and the Sakya school name was recognized in Tibet.

The theme of this school is the practice of tantric system of theory and meditation practice described by the great Indian master Virupa. He introduced the essence of all the Buddhist tantras in general and the practice of Hevajra Tantra in particular. It is a synthesis of the entire paths and fruits of both sutra and tantra teachings. The philosophical viewpoint expressed in the Path and Fruition doctrine is inseparability of samsara and nirvana. According to this view, the mind is the root of both samsara and nirvana. When obscured, it takes the form of samsara and when freed of obstructions it is nirvana. Hence, the reality is that a person must strive through meditation to realize their inseparability.

The five great masters of this school were Sachen Kunga Nyingpo (1092-1158), Sonam Tsemo (1142-1182), Dakpa Gyaltsen (1147-1216), Sakya Pandita (1182-1251) and Chogyal Phakpa (1235-1280).

The sub-schools within the main School are Ngor and Tsar Lineages. Ngorchen Kunga Zangpo (1382-1457) and successive masters such as Konchok Lhundrup, Thartse Namkha Pelsang and Drubkhang Palden Dhondup have come to be known as the Ngor lineage holders. The lineage led by Tsarchen Losel Gyatso (1502-56) is called the Tsar lineage. The main teaching and practice of the Sakyapa is called Lamdre, the Path and Fruition.

Faculty Members:-

Name : Dr. Tashi Tsering (S)    
Designation : Associate Professor
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Name : Ven. Ngawang Lodoe    
Designation : Assistant Professor
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Name : Ven. Dakpa Senge    
Designation : Assistant Professor
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Name : Ven. Ngawang Zodpa    
Designation : Guest Lecturer
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Nyingma School
Department of Nyingma Sampradaya was established in 1967 functioned as, then caused Central Institute of Higher Tibetan Studies, and a special wing of Sampurnanand Sanskrit University, Varanasi Nyingmapa is the earliest school of Tibetan Buddhism founded by the great Indian master Shantarakshita and Padmasambhava.

History
The King Trisong Deutsen invited the great Oddiyana master Padmasambhava to Tibet in the year 810 A.D. He translated many Vajrayana texts and turned the wheel of Dharma of the Secret Mantra at Samye monastery. He preached esoterically many Vajrayana teachings to his special disciples including the King and his twenty-five followers. Gradually, the transmission developed as the school of secret mantra known as Nyingmapa. He introduced the Dzogchen teaching, that is recognition of the nature of mind, especially its fundamental aspect called the pristine awareness. This great tradition flourished through Guru Padmasambhava, Vimalakirti, and the great translator Vairocana. Later the great master Lonchen Rabjampa systematized the Dzogchen teaching into a integrated philosophical and contemplative system. These teachings developed for over hundreds of years, and the forty-second King of Tibet Tri Ralpachen contributed greatly to the expansion of the Dharma by implementing many new codes of conduct for the lay people in the matter of their treatment of the monastic orders, such as certain the numbers of monks to be taken care by one family and so on. He also prepared new rules for translation of the teachings and established a few new monasteries.

The Ngagyur or the old translation teachings, since its establishment by Acharya Shatarakshita, Guru Padmasambhava and King Trisong Deutsen, passed through three different stages—the Nyag, Nub and Zur eras—upheld by successive generations at each stage. The Tertons or Treasure Revealers have rediscovered the hidden teachings, which were buried at safe places in order to protect them from damage and defilement by the Guru himself. During the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries the ancient Nyingmapa's School came to be gradually divided into six separate monasteries. Each monastery had hundreds of branches. The monastery like Mindrolling and Dorjedrag were established in the Central Tibet, Shechen and Dzogchen were founded in Central of Kham or Eastern Province while Kathog and Palyul were established in the south-eastern part of Upper Kham. Presently, these monasteries are re-established in south India, Mysore, and north in India at Dehradun, Shimla and so forth.

The tradition is constituted by the great masters like Longchen Rabjampa, Rangzom, Jigmed Lingpa, Ju Mipham and so forth. The school took up both philosophical and Tantrik study of the entire teachings of the Buddha included in the nine Yānas (Vehicles). Its emphasis is on the meditational practice of the three inner Tantras. Dzogchen, the great perfection became the central theme of teaching and the path of practice.

Faculty Member:-

Name : Ven. Dudjom Namgyal    
Designation : Associate Professor
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Name : Ven. Sonam Dorjee    
Designation : Guest Lecturer
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Name : Ven. Sonam Wangchen    
Designation : Guest Lecturer
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Name : Ven. Sanga Tenzin    
Designation : Guest Lecturer
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Gelug School
Department of Gelug Sampradaya was established in 1967 to preserve and disseminate the valuable tradition of Kadampa, which had come down from the great Indian master Atisha.

History
The Gelug School established by the great Acharya Je Tsongkhapa Lobsang Dakpa (1357-1419). He was born in the Tsongkha region of Amdo province. He was ordained at the age of three by the fourth Karmapa and received the novice vows at the age of seven. Tsongkhapa travelled within Tibet extensively and studied with masters of all existing Tibetan schools and mainly from the Kadampa masters. Atisha (982-1054), the great Achårya of Vikramshila of India was invited to Tibet in 1039 and taught the teachings of both sutra and tantra. His lineage of the teachings that was later transmitted through Khuton, Ngok Lotsawa Loden Sherab (1059-1109) and Dromtonpa Gyalwai Jungney (1005-1064) is known as Kadampa tradition.

Je Tsongkhapa's had many disciples; such as Gyaltsab Dharma Rinchen (1364-1432), Khedrub Geleg Pelsang (1385-1438), Gyalwa Gendun Drup (1391-1474), Jamyang Chojey Tashi Palden (1379-1449), Jamchen Chojey Shakya Yeshe, Je Sherab Singe and Kunga Dhondup (1354-143S) were the most famous disciples.

Tsongkhapa founded Gaden monastery in 1409. The Gelugpa School was founded as the school's original name Gadenpa. The monastery was divided into two colleges, Shartse and Jangtse. Other major monasteries of this school are Drepung, Sera, Tashi Lhunpo, Gyutod and Gyumed. One of his disciples, Jamyang Choje Tashi Palden founded the Drepung monastery in 1416. The two main branches of this monastery are Loselling and Gomang. Another disciple of Tsongkhapa, Jamchen Choje Sakya Yeshe established Sera monastery in 1419 consisting two divisions of Sera Jey and Sera Mey.

Gyalwa Gendun Drup, the first Dalai Lama, founded Tashi Lhunpo monastery at Shigatse in 1447, which became the seat of the Panchen Lamas. Monks in these monasteries mainly studied the sutra teachings, while the mantra teachings were mainly practiced in two other monasteries viz., Jey Sherab Senge established Gyumey, the lower Tantric monastery in 1440 was and Gyuchen Kunga Dhondup founded the Gyutod, the upper Tantric monastery in 1474.

The central tenets of the Gelug school consists of The Stages of the Path to Enlightenment (Lamrim) based on the teaching of great Indian master Atisha (11th century), The union of the practices of Sutra and Tantra are the key focus of this school to the realization of the bliss and emptiness. The monks of this school learn five major sciences i.e. Abhidharmakosh, Pratimokshasutra, Pramanavartika, Abhisamayalamkaraprajnaparmita and Madhyamkavatra.

Faculty Member:-

 

Name : Ven. Lobsang Gyaltsen    
Designation : Associate Professor
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Name : Ven. Thubten Lekshey    
Designation : Assistant Professor
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Name : Ven. Lobsang Tsultrim    
Designation : Assistant Professor
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Name : Ven. Ngawang Tenphl    
Designation : Guest Lecturer
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Kargyud School
Department of Kagyu Sampradaya was established in 1967 to preserve and disseminate the valuable tradition came from the great Indian Siddhas Naropa and Maitripa.

History
The Kagyupa school of Tibetan Buddhism started from two different primary sources: Marpa Lotsawa (1012-1099) and Khyungpo Nyaljor (978-1079). Marpa Lo-tsa-wa was the founder of the earlier tradition. He studied under Dromi Yeshi (993-1050 and took the training of translation. Later he travelled to India three times, and four times to Nepal in order in search of the true teachings. He studied under many Indian masters, but mainly under the great adept Acharya Naropa and Maitripa. Marpa had directly received the lineage of tantric teachings of Illusory Body and Consciousness Transference, Dream, Clear Light, and Inner Heat from Naropa (1016-1100). Naropa himself also directly received these teaching from his master Tilopa (988-1069) and Tilopa received it directly from the Buddha Vajradhara. These great teachings were then brought to Tibet by Marpa, and later transmitted it to his foremost disciple Milarepa (1040-1123). Milarelpa was the only Tibetan Yogi Master who achieved Enlightenment in his very life by practicing the secret Mantrayana system.

Milarepa was the one master who carried on Marpa's meditation lineage and others such as Ngog Choku Dorje, Thsurton Wangey and Meton Chenpo furthered Marpa's teaching lineages. Thus, the dual system of philosophical meditation trainings was established in Kagyupa School. The great teacher Gampopa (1084-1161) and Rechungpa (1084-1161) were the well-known disciples of Milarepa. Gampopa received the Mahamudra teachings and practice instructions on the Six Yogas of Naropa from Milarepa and synthesized them into one lineage. This lineage came to be known as Dakpo Kagyud, the mother lineage of the Kagyud tradition.

Shangpa Kagyud, one of the two original forms of the Kagyud tradition, was founded by Khyungpo Nyaljor (978-1079), he went to Nepal where he met Acharya Sumati. He received training in translating texts from him and later travelled to India. After he met with over hundreds of Indian scholars, and imbibed various philosophical and secret mantra teachings from them, He mastered the entire exoteric and esoteric doctrines. His main teachers are known as Sukhasiddha, Rahulagupta and Niguma, the consort of Naropa. Later this lineage is known as the Shangpa Kagyud tradition.

Dagpo Kargyud tradition itself has twelve branches. It has also four major schools and eight sub-schools. The fundamental principle of this doctrine is the practice of Mahamudra and the six main teachings of Naropa. Among the four schools, Kamtsang Kagyud was founded by the first Karmapa Dusum Khyenpa. Barom Darma Wangchuk established the second Barom Kagyud. Zhang Tsalpa Tsondru Drakpa founded the third, and Tsalpa Kagyud and Phagmo Drupa established the fourth Phagdru Kagyud.

The eight smaller Kagyud schools are Drikung Kagyud which was founded by Drigung Kyobpa Jigten Sumgon; Taklung Kagyud established by Taglung Thangpa Tashi Pal; Throphu Kagyud was founded by Gyal Tsha and Kunden Repa; Drukpa Kagyud established by Lingre Pema Dorje and Tsangpa Gyare Yeshe Dorje; Martsang Kagyud was founded by Marpa Drubthob Sherab Senge; Yelpa Kagyu was established by Drubthob Yeshe Tsegpa; Yazang Kagyud was established by Sharawa Kalden Yeshe Senge; and Shugseb Kagyu was founded by Gyergom Chenpo. The different sub-schools have arisen on the basis of difference in individual approaches to the fundamental teachings. Mahamudra, the unique feature of Kagyud tradition can be explained according to interpretations of both Sutra and Tantra. Both aspects of the teachings are aimed at direct understanding of the real nature of the mind, the clear light.

Faculty Member:-

Name : Dr.Tashi Samphel    
Designation : Assistant Professor in Senior Scale (HOD)
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Name : Ven. Sonam Gyatso    
Designation : Professor
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Name : Acharya Lobsang Thokmed    
Designation : Assistant Professor
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Name : Dr. Ramesh Chandra Negi    
Designation : Assistant Professor / Chief Editor, Dictionary Unit
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